Thursday, May 26, 2011

Andhra Pradesh

Andhra Pradesh
ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్
—  State  —

Location of Andhra Pradesh in India
Map of Andhra Pradesh
Coordinates (Hyderabad): 17.366°N 78.476°E
Country India
Established1 November 1956 (54 years ago)
Largest cityHyderabad
Districts23 total
 - BodyGovernment of India,Government of Andhra Pradesh
 - GovernorE. S. L. Narasimhan
 - Chief MinisterN. Kiran Kumar Reddy
 - LegislatureBicameral (294 + 90 seats)
 - High Court
 - Total275,045 km2 (106,195.5 sq mi)
Area rank3rd
Population (2011)
 - Total84,655,533
 - Rank5th
 - Density307.8/km2 (797.2/sq mi)
Time zoneIST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 codeIN-AP
HDIincrease 0.572 (medium)
HDI rank20th (2005)
Literacy67.77% (2011)
Official languagesTelugu

Andhra Pradesh  abbreviated A.P., is a state situated on the southeastern coast of India. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city by population is Hyderabad. The State has the second-longest coastline of 972 km (604 mi) among all the States in India. The primary official language of Andhra Pradesh is Telugu and Urdu is the secondary official language in some places, while other languages spoken in Andhra Pradesh are Hindi, Tamil, Marathi, Kannada. 10281 persons declare English as their first language in Andhra Pradesh according to the 2001 census.
Andhra Pradesh lies between 12°41' and 22°N latitude and 77° and 84°40'E longitude, and is bordered by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh and Odisha in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the East, Tamil Nadu to the south and Karnataka to the west. Andhra Pradesh is historically called the "Rice Bowl of India". More than 77% of its crop is rice; Andhra Pradesh produced 17,796,000 tonnes of rice in 2006. Two major rivers, the Godavari and the Krishna, run across the state. The small enclave (30 square kilometres (12 sq mi)) of Yanam, a district of Puducherry, lies in the Godavari Delta in the northeast of the state.
On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganization Act formed Andhra Pradesh by merging Telugu-speaking areas of Hyderabad State and the Telugu-speaking part of the Madras Presidency.


An Andhra tribe was mentioned in the Sanskrit epics such as Aitareya Brahmana (800 BCE) and Mahabharata (400 BCE). The Natya Shastra written by Bharatha (1st century BCE) also mentions the Andhra people. The roots of the Telugu language have been seen on inscriptions found near the Guntur district and from others dating to the rule of Renati Cholas in the 5th century CE.
Megasthenes, a Greek traveller and geographer who visited the Court of Chandragupta Maurya (322–297 BCE), mentioned that the region had three fortified towns and an army of 100,000 infantry, 200 cavalry, and 1,000 elephants.Buddhist books reveal that Andhras established their huts or tents near the Godavari River at that time.
Inscriptional evidence shows that there was an early kingdom in coastal Andhra (Guntur District) ruled first by Kuberaka and then by his son Varun, with Pratipalapura (Bhattiprolu) as the capital. Around the same time, Dhanyakatakam/Dharanikota (present day Amaravati) appears to have been an important place, which was visited by Gautama Buddha. According to the ancient Tibetan scholar Taranatha: "On the full moon of the month Chaitra in the year following his enlightenment, at the great stupa of Dhanyakataka, the Buddha emanated the mandala of 'The Glorious Lunar Mansions' (Kalachakra)".
Kakatiya sculpture at Warangal
Literary evidence shows that long before Satavahanas, a legendary king named Āndhra Viṣhṇu ruled in and around the Diviseema region of Andhra Pradesh. After his reign, people came to believe that he had an amsa of the divine savior Lord Maha Vishnu himself. Perhaps in his honor, people dedicated a new temple now located at Srikākuḷam, Krishna District. The lord of the temple is known as Āndhra Viṣhṇu or Srikākuḷāndhra Viṣhṇu.
The Mauryans extended their rule over Andhra in the 4th century BC. With the fall of the Maurya Empire in the 3rd century BC, the Satavahanas became independent. After the decline of the Satavahanas in 220 CE, the Ikshvaku dynasty, Pallavas, Ananda Gotrikas, Rashtrakutas,Vishnukundinas, Eastern Chalukyas, and Cholas ruled the land. During this period, Telugu emerged as a popular language, supplanting Prakrit and Sanskrit. Telugu was made the official language by the Vishnukundina kings (5th and 6th centuries), who ruled from their capital city of Vengi. Eastern Chalukyas ruled for a long period after the decline of Vishnukundinas; their capital was also Vengi. As early as the 1st century CE, Chalukyas were mentioned as being vassals and chieftains under the Satavahanas and later under the Ikshvakus. The Chalukya ruler Rajaraja Narendra ruled Rajahmundry around 1022 CE.
The battle of Palnadu (1182) resulted in the weakening of the Eastern Chalukya dynasty and led to the emergence of the Kakatiya dynasty in the 12th and 13th centuries CE. The Kakatiyas were at first vassals of the Rashtrakutas, and ruled over a small territory near Warangal. Eventually all the Telugu lands were united by the Kakatiyas. In 1323 CE, Delhi Sultan Ghiyath al-Din Tughluq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country and captured Warangal. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner. Musunuri Nayaks recaptured Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate in 1326 CE and ruled for fifty years. Inspired by their success, the Vijayanagara Empire, one of the greatest empires in the history of Andhra Pradesh and India, was founded by Harihara and Bukka, who served as treasury officers of the Kakatiyas of Warangal. In 1347 CE, an independent Muslim state, the Bahmani Sultanate, was established in south India by Ala-ud-Din Bahman Shah in a revolt against the Delhi Sultanate. The Qutb Shahi dynasty held sway over the Andhra country for about two hundred years from the early part of the 16th century to the end of the 17th century. In Colonial India, Northern Circars became part of the British Madras Presidency. Eventually this region emerged as the Coastal Andhra region. Later the Nizam rulers of Hyderabad ceded five territories to the British which eventually emerged as Rayalaseema region. The Nizams retained control of the interior provinces as the Princely state of Hyderabad, acknowledging British rule in return for local autonomy. Meanwhile, the French occupied Yanam, in the Godavari delta, and (save for periods of British control) would hold it until 1954.
India became independent from the United Kingdom in 1947. The Nizam wanted to retain the independence of the Princely Hyderabad State from India, but the people of the region launched a movement to join the Indian Union. The state of Hyderabad was forcibly joined to the Republic of India with Operation Polo in 1948.
In an effort to gain an independent state based on the lingustic and protect the interests of the Andhra (telugu speaking) people of Madras State, Potti Sreeramulu fasted until death in 1952. After his death, Andhra attained statehood on 1 November 1953, with Kurnool as its capital.
On 1 November 1956, the States Reorganization Act merged the Telugu-speaking areas of the former Hyderabad state with the Telugu-speaking areas of the former Madras state to form the state of Vishalandhra, which is named as Andhra Pradesh. The city of Hyderabad, the former capital of the Hyderabad State, was made the capital of the new state. There were several movements to disintigrate Andhra Pradesh into two States viz. Andhra and Telengana in the late 1960 which are continuing till date.
On 9 December 2009, it was announced that a separation proposal for Telangana would be introduced to the state assembly. Controversy arose as to the future status of Hyderabad City, part of one of the ten districts of Telangana region. This move was opposed by protesters from Andhra and Rayalaseema regions. On 23 December 2009, the government decided to put the decision of bifurcating the state on hold until a consensus is achieved among the different political parties. This agitated supporters of a separate Telangana state. On 5 January 2010, the Central Government represented by Home Minister P Chidambaram conducted a meeting by inviting all the recognised political parties of AP and recorded their stand on the issue. The Government of India appointed a committee, headed by B. N. Srikrishna, to guide the central government to settle the issue of Telangana amicably. The committee submitted its report on 30 December 2010, a day before its term was to expire.

Geography and climate

Greater Flamingoes (Phoenicopterus roseus) taking off Pocharam lake
The railroad bridge betweenRajahmundry and Kovvur
Geographically, Andhra Pradesh is composed of most of the eastern half of the Deccan plateau and the plains to the east of the Eastern Ghats. Andhra Pradesh is divided into three regions. The northern part of the plateau is the Telangana region and the southern part is known as Rayalaseema. These two regions are separated by the River Krishna. The third region is Coastal Andhra. The plains to the east of Eastern Ghats form the Eastern coastal plains. The Eastern Ghats are discontinuous and individual sections have local names. The Kadapa Basin formed by two arching branches of the Eastern Ghats is a mineral rich area. The coastal plains are for the most part delta regions formed by the Godavari, Krishna, and Penner rivers. The Eastern Ghats are a major dividing line in the state's geography. The Ghats become more pronounced towards the south and extreme north of the coast. The Eastern Ghat region is home to dense tropical forests, while the vegetation becomes sparse as the Ghats give way to the Deccan Plateau, where shrub vegetation is more common. Most of the coastal plains are put to intense agricultural use. The west and southwest parts of Andhra Pradesh have semi-arid conditions.
The climate of Andhra Pradesh varies considerably, depending on the geographical region. Monsoons play a major role in determining the climate of the state. Summers last from March to June. In the coastal plain, the summer temperatures are generally higher than the rest of the state, with temperature ranging between 20 °C and 41 °C.
July to September is the seasons for tropical rains in Andhra Pradesh. The state receives heavy rainfall from Southwest Monsoon during these months. About one third of the total rainfall in Andhra Pradesh is brought by the Northeast Monsoon. October and November see low-pressure systems and tropical cyclones form in the Bay of Bengal which, along with the Northeast Monsoon, bring rains to the southern and coastal regions of the state. November, December, January, and February are the winter months in Andhra Pradesh. Since the state has a long coastal belt the winters are not very cold. The range of winter temperature is generally 12 °C to 30 °C.
Hyderabad is the capital and, along with the adjoining twin city Secunderabad, is the largest city in the state.Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh's main seaport, is the second largest city and is home to the Indian Navy's Eastern Naval Command. Due to its location and proximity to major rail and road routes, Vijayawada is a major trading center. It is the third largest city of the state, Warangal the historical city of Andhra Pradesh, comprised of Warangal, Hanamkonda and Kazipet, which is also called Tri City, is the fourth largest city of Andhra Pradesh followed by Tirupati, Rajahmundry, Kakinada and Guntur. Other important cities of the state are Karimnagar,Nellore, Nizamabad, Kurnool, Kadapa, and Srikakulam.

Wednesday, May 25, 2011


Population Trend 
Source:Census of India
Telugu is the official language of the state, spoken by 83% of the population. Major linguistic minority groups include Urdu (8.63%), Hindi (3.23%), and Tamil (1.01%).
Other languages spoken in Andhra Pradesh by less than 1% each are Marathi (0.8%), Kannada(0.74%), and Oriya (0.44%). Languages spoken by less than 0.2% of the population include Malayalam (0.08%), Gujarati (0.06%), Bengali (0.05%), Gorkhali/Nepali (0.03%), Punjabi (0.01%) and Sindhi(0.01%).
The main ethnic group of Andhra Pradesh is the Telugu people, who are primarily Dravidians.
Andhra Pradesh ranks tenth compared to all Indian States in the Human Development Index scores with a score of 0.416.
The National Council of Applied Economic Research district analysis in 2001 reveals that Khammam, Krishna, West Godavari, Chittoor, and Medak are the five districts with the highest Human Development Indexscores in ascending order in rural AP. The data show that the poor make up 16.3 per cent of the total population in rural AP and expenditure on consumption is around 13.5 per cent of the total consumption expenditure. The female literacy rate is 0.66 compared to male literacy rate in rural AP. The district-wise variations for poverty ratio are high and low for the ratio of female/male literacy rate.


Woman picking cotton in Andhra Pradesh
GDP by year
YearState GDP (Indian Rupee symbol.svg MM)
1980Indian Rupee symbol.svg81,910
1985Indian Rupee symbol.svg152,660
1990Indian Rupee symbol.svg333,360
1995Indian Rupee symbol.svg798,540
2000Indian Rupee symbol.svg1,401,190
2007Indian Rupee symbol.svg2,294,610
Andhra Pradesh's GSDP for 2010 was estimated at $100.35 billion in current prices. The state ranks third in terms of overall Gross State Product among all the states of the Indian Union. In terms of per capita GSDP the state compares very favorably with other large states. In the 2010 list by Forbes Magazine, there are Seven from Andhra Pradesh among the top 100 richest Indians.
Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. Andhra Pradesh is an exporter of many agricultural products. Four important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna, Penna, and Thungabhadra flow through the state, providing irrigation. Rice,sugarcane, cotton, Chili pepper, mango, and tobacco are the local crops. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam.
The service sector of the state accounts for 43% of the gross state domestic product (GSDP) and employs 20% of the work force.Andhra Pradesh economy has registered over 5.5% annual economic growth rate during the last two decades. The state is one of the most industrially developed states of India.
Andhra Pradesh ranks second in India in terms of mineral wealth. The state has about one third of India's limestone reserves, estimated at about 30 billion tonnes. The Krishna Godavari Basin has huge reserves of natural gas and petroleum. The state has a large amount of coal reserves. The state ranks first nationwide in hydro electricity generation, with a national market share of over 11%. Andhra Pradesh has the second largest power generating utility in the country, with an installed capacity of around 10,650 MW. The two cheapest sources of thermal power generation – coal and natural gas – are in abundance.

Information technology

Cyber Towers at Hyderabad
In 2004–2005, Andhra Pradesh was at the second position in the list of top information technology exporting states of India. The IT exports from the state were Indian Rupee symbol.svg8,270 crores in 2004–2005 ($1.8 billion). The IT sector is expanding at a rate of 52.3% every year. The IT exports reached Indian Rupee symbol.svg19,000 crores ($4.5 billion) in 2006–2007, contributed to 14 per cent of total IT exports of the nation and ranked fourth in India.


The field of biotechnology in Andra pradesh is developing day by day.and the government is not funding money for research in the field of bio tech,some universities like Andhra university ,Nagarjuna universities , etc. are not able to run the course of bio-tech because of lack of funds The state capital of Hyderabad is considered to be the bulk drug capital of India. Four of the top ten pharmaceutical companies are from the state. Major pharma companies from the state are:
  • Dr. Reddy's Laboratories
  • Novartis
  • Hetero Drugs Ltd
  • Aurobindo Pharma
  • Vasudha Pharma
  • Divi Laboratories

Other key sectors

  • Power Sector
  • Automobiles and auto component industry
  • Tourism
  • Textiles and leather
  • Mining
Some notable corporates from Andhra Praesh:Lanco,GMR,GVK,Apollo,Nippo Batteries,BGR Energies,Dr.Reddy's,Matrix,Divi Laboratories,Aurabindho Pharma

Government and politics

Andhra Pradesh has a Vidhan Sabha (legislative assembly, lower house) of 294 seats, and a Vidhan Parishad (legislative council, upper house) of 90 members. 31 members are elected from local bodies, 31 members are elected from the assembly, eight members are elected from teachers, eight members are elected from graduates, and 12 members are nominated by the Governor. In the Parliament of India Andhra Pradesh has 18 in the Rajya Sabha, the Upper House, and 42 in the Lok Sabha, the Lower House.
Andhra Pradesh had a series of governments headed by Indian National Congress (INC) Party until 1982. N. Chandrababu Naidu held the record for the longest serving chief minister (1995 to 2004). P. V. Narasimha Rao served as the chief minister of the state from 1971 to 1973, and went on to become the Prime Minister of India in 1991. The first Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh was Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, who later served as President of India. The notable chief ministers of the state are Tanguturi Prakasam, Damodaram Sanjivayya, Kasu Brahmananda Reddy, P. V. Narasimha Rao, Jalagam Vengala Rao, Marri Chenna Reddy, Tanguturi Anjaiah, Bhavanam Venkatarami Reddy, Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy, N. T. Rama Rao, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao, Nedurumalli Janardhana Reddy, N.Chandrababu Naidu, Y. S. Rajasekhara Reddy, Konijeti Rosaiah and N. Kiran Kumar Reddy .
Andhra Pradesh High Court at Hyderabad, the main judicial body for the State
Until 1962, the CPI, along with socialist parties, played an important role as opposition parties. Parties namely Praja Socialist Party and Krishi Lok Party played important role in 1950's. In the 1967 state assembly elections all socialist parties were eliminated and CPI lost opposition party status. N.G. Ranga's Swatantra Party became the Opposition Party. They also failed to hold control later and became defunct. In 1978 Jalagam Vengal Rao and Kasu Brahmananda Reddy formed the Reddy Congress and contested against Congress (I) but lost.
In 1983 the Telugu Desam Party (TDP) won the State elections and N.T. Rama Rao (NTR) became the chief minister of the state for the first time. This broke the long time single party monopoly enjoyed by the INC from 1956 until 1982. A few months after the election, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao usurped power when NTR was away in the United States for medical treatment. After coming back, NTR campaigned for a comeback by demonstrating the support of the majority of the elected MLAs. The governorThakur Ram Lal was ousted by Indira Gandhi and in his place she appointed Shankar Dayal Sharma. NTR was reinstated as Chief Minister. Within a month NTR recommended the dissolution of the assembly and called for fresh elections. Gandhi was assassinated on 31 October 1984 by her Sikh bodyguard and Rajiv Gandhi was made Prime Minister by President Giani Zail Singh. In the ensuing elections for Lok Sabha and the AP Assembly, the Telugu Desam Party won in Andhra Pradesh and NTR came back to power.
The 1989 elections ended the rule of NTR, with the INC party returning to power with Marri Chenna Reddy at the helm. He was replaced by Janardhan Reddy in 1990, who was replaced by Kotla Vijaya Bhaskara Reddy in 1992.
In 1994, Andhra Pradesh gave a mandate to the Telugu Desam Party again, and NTR became the chief minister again. Nara Chandrababu Naidu, the son-in-law of NTR, usurped power with the backing of a majority of the MLAs. The Telugu Desam Party won both the assembly and Lok Sabha election in 1999 under the leadership of Chandrababu Naidu. There was an assassination attempt on Naidu in 2003 in Tirupathi; he survived the attack. In the ensuing elections the party lost power to a resurgent Congress Party and its allies. Congress on its own won 185 seats in 294 assembly, and with its allies won 226 seats; Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became the Chief Minister.
Y. S. Rajasekhar Reddy became the CM again by fending off the Praja Rajyam Party and a major alliance of TDP, TRS, CPI and CPM. He died on 2 September 2009 in a helicopter crash. Konijeti Rosaiah, a senior statesman and former State Finance Minister, became the Chief Minister of AP on 3 September 2009. On 24 November 2010, Rosaiah submitted his resignation on the grounds of increased work pressure. Nallari Kiran Kumar Reddy Reddy was sworn in as the new CM on the following day.


Cultural institutions

Andhra Pradesh has many museums, the Salar Jung Museum in Hyderabad, which features a varied collection of sculptures, paintings, and religious artifacts, including the Archaeological Museum at Amaravati near Guntur City that features relics of nearby ancient sites,and the Visakha Museum, in Visakhapatnam, which displays the history of the pre-Independence,and Thotla konda which depicts the age old budhist stupa's and cultural style, Madras Presidency in a rehabilitated Dutch bungalow. Victoria Jubilee Museum in Vijayawada has a good collection of ancient sculptures, paintings, idols, weapons, cutlery and inscriptions. Other ancient sites include dozens of ancient Buddhist stupas in Nagarjunakonda which is now an island in Nagarjuna Sagar, an artificial lake that formed after the construction of Nagarjuna Sagar Dam. The Island has a large museum that houses many Buddhist relics.


Hyderabad biryani served with other Indian dishes
The cuisine of Andhra Pradesh is one of the spiciest of all Indian cuisines. There are many variations to the cuisine (all involving rice) depending on geographical regions, caste, and traditions. Pickles and chutneys, called thoku also called as pachadi in Telugu, are particularly popular in Andhra Pradesh and many varieties of pickles and chutneys are unique to the State. Chutneys are made from practically every vegetable including tomatoes, brinjals (eggplant), and roselle (Gongura).Avaakaya (mango) is probably the best known of the Andhra Pradesh pickles.
Rice is the staple food and is used in a wide variety of ways. Typically, rice is either boiled and eaten with curry, or made into a batter for use in a crepe-like dish calledattu (pesarattu is made of a mixture of this batter and mung beans) or dosas, a crepe filled with black beans or lentils.
Meat, vegetables and greens are prepared with different spices (masala) into a variety of strongly flavored dishes such as Hyderabadi Biryani, fish curry, brinjal curry, andGongura pachadi the most popular dish of andhra pradesh.An Andhra dish is recognized with the dish being listed in the menu.The coastal region is even more well versed with the varieties in sea food "chapala purulusulu"specially known for "Bommidala pulusu","Koramenu kura". Especially Hyderabadi cuisine is influenced by the Muslims who arrived in Telangana in the 14th century. Much of the cuisine revolves around meat. It is rich and aromatic, with a liberal use of exotic spices and ghee (clarified butter). Lamb, chicken, and fish are the most widely used meats in the non-vegetarian dishes. Biriyani is perhaps the most distinctive and popular dish of Hyderabadi cuisine.


Kuchipudi, the traditional dance of Andhra Pradesh,by Yamini Reddy
Classical dance in Andhra can be performed by both men and women; women tend to learn it more often. Kuchipudi is the state's best-known classical dance form. The various dance forms that existed through the state's history are Bonalu, Dappu , Chenchu Bhagotham, Kuchipudi, Bhamakalapam, Burrakatha, Veeranatyam, Butta bommalu, Tappeta Gullu, Lambadi, Dhimsa,Kolattam, and Chindu. Jaanapadam theenmar is a popular folk dance.
Jayapa Senani was the first person to write about the dances prevalent in Andhra Pradesh. Both Desi and Margi forms of dances are included in his Sanskrit treatise Nrutya Ratnavali.


Just like in other parts of the country, many festivals are celebrated in Andhra Pradesh. However, certain festivals epitomize the culture of the state better and reflect its unique identity. These include Ugadi-which begins the Telugu New Year,Sankranthi-which is a harvest festival and Vijayadashami/Dasara. Bonalu and Batukamma are celebrated with gusto especially in the Telangana region. Brief details of these and other festivals are provided below.
  • Eid ul Fitr celebrated according to Muslim Lunar Hijri Calendar
  • Eid ul Adha  celebrated according to Muslim Lunar Hijri Calendar
  • Sankranthi in January
  • Maha Shivaratri in February/March
  • Holi in March
  • Ugadi or the Telugu New Year in March/April
  • Muharram celebrated according to Muslim Lunar Hijri Calendar
  • Milad-un-Nabi celebrated according to Muslim Lunar Hijri Calendar
  • Sri Rama Navami celebrated in March/April, nine days after Ugadi
  • Bonalu Celebrated in Telengana Region only in the month of July/August
  • Nagula Chaviti in August
  • Varalakshmi Vratham in August
  • Rakhi poornima in August
  • Vinayaka Chavithi in August/September
  • Dasara in September/October
  • Deepavali in October/November, 20 days after Dasara
  • Batukamma celebrated for nine days during Durgastami (called as Navratri–Dasara in Telangana region)


Outdoor games include Cricket, Football, Kabaddi, Kho Kho, Gilli-danda, Gilli Kaama, Gooti Billa, Gujjana Goollu, Gotilu, lingosh, Kothi Kommachi, Nalugu Stambhalata, Nalugu Rallu Aata, Tokkudu Billa, Goleelu and Nela-Banda. The major outdoor game played is cricket. Indoor board games include Puli Joodam, Carroms, Ashta Chamma, Dahdi, Vamagunatalu, Vaikuntapali, Gavalu Aataa and Chintha Ginjallu Aataa. Achenagandlu, Ramudu Sita, star, ashtachamma are indoor games played by children and elders.


Nannayya, Tikkana, and Yerrapragada form the trinity who translated the great Sanskrit epic Mahabharata into Telugu. Bommera Pothana is the poet who composed the classic SriMad Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatham, authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. Nannayya (c. 11th century AD), the earliest know Telugu author, was patronized by the king Rajaraja Narendra who ruled from Rajamahendravaram (now Rajahmundry). The Vijayanagara emperor Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada. The Telugu poet Vemana, a native of Kadapa, is notable for his philosophical poems. Telugu literature after Kandukuri Veeresalingam (1848–1919) is termed modern literature. Known as Gadya Tikkana, Satyavathi Charitam was the author Telugu-language social novel, Satyavathi Charitam. Jnanpith Award winners include Sri Viswanatha Satya Narayana and Dr. C. Narayana Reddy. The Andhra Pradesh native and revolutionary poet Sri Sri brought new forms of expressionism into Telugu literature.
Other modern writers include Gunturu Seshendra Sarma, the only person nominated from India for a Nobel prize in literature since Rabindranath Tagore. The West Bengal Government conferred on him the titleRashtrendu ("Moon of the Nation"). Telugu University awarded him an honorary Doctorate in Literature in 1994. He received the Kalidas Samman award from the Madhya Pradhesh government, and he won the Central Sahitya Akademi fellowship in 1999.
Seshendra's first work in print appeared in 1952.[1] It is the translation of Matthew Arnold's Sohrab and Rustum, which is based upon the Persian Epic Shahnama. Initially he focused on poetry and occasionally worked on literary criticism. Seshendra's first collection of prose-poems Sesha Jyotsna. He composed it strictly conforming to Telugu prosody which was published in 1972 in Telugu and English. Its translations into Hindi and Urdu appeared separately. His magnum opus was Naa Desham, Naa Prajalu (My Country, My People, Meri Dharti, Mere Log). It led to his nomination for the Nobel Prize in Literature in 2004.
Shri Puttaparthi Narayanacharyulu is one of the scholarly poets of Telugu literature. He wrote the books Sivatandavam and Panduranga Mahatyam.
Other notable writers from Andhra Pradesh include Srirangam Sreenivasarao, Gurram Jashuva, Chinnaya Suri, Viswanatha Satyanarayana.


Andhra Pradesh has around 3,300 cinema halls. The state produces about 200 movies a year. It has around 40% (330 out of 930) of the Dolby Digitaltheatres in India. It houses an IMAX theatre which was the biggest 3D IMAX screen in the world when it was built in 2007: the Prasads IMAX. Tollywood produces the largest number of movies in India per year. It is also home to Ramoji Film City which is the world’s largest integrated film studio complex at over 2,000 acres (8.1 km2) of land.


Many composers of Carnatic music like Annamacharya, Tyagaraja, Kshetrayya, Syama Sastri and Bhadrachala Ramadasu were of Telugu descent. Modern Carnatic music composers like Ghantasala and Sri M. Balamuralikrishna are also of Telugu descent.
The local film industry hosts many music composers and playback singers such as S. P. Balasubrahmanyam.
Folk songs are popular in the many rural areas of the state. Forms such as the Burra katha and Poli are still performed today.